this video shows an example of a poorly done interview and contrasts it with a much better one dig the context for this I’m first going to summarize the ten characteristics of a good interviewer that Steiner Kewalo gives in his 1996 book interviews voilá starts with the interviewer needs to be knowledgeable and familiar with the topic of interviewer and will have piloted to give themselves practice and experience of doing the interview the interviewer gives structure the interview starts with an explanation of the purpose of the interview a rounds off at the end for example by asking if the interviewee has any questions or has anything to add the interviewer is clear the questions that they ask us simple easy and short they don’t use jargon the interviewer is gentle they let people finish what they’re saying they give the interviewee time to finish they tolerate pauses they give people time to think and don’t it drop in too quickly the interviewer is sensitive into your listens attentively to what is said an interviewer empathizes in dealing with the interviewee the interviewer is open interviewer responds to what is important for the interviewee in she was flexible in the way that the questions are asked and responds to the issues raised by the interviewee however in fewer also needs to be steering interviewer needs to know what he or she wants to find out they use questions and prompts and probes to get information are interested in for their research the interviewer is critical not so much disagreeing or even agreeing with in interviewee but rather interviewer is prepared to challenge what is said to them for example inconsistencies or ambiguities in what — he says the interviewer remembers especially the interviewer should remember what has already been said earlier on in the interview they can relate back what is discussed now — what has been previously said and they avoid asking things of the interviewee that the Interior already talked about into your interprets the interviewer can clarify and extend the meaning of what in theory says sometimes they may do this by summarizing for the interviewee what they have just said — koalas list crimen adds two more criteria the interviewer should be balanced they shouldn’t talk too much which might make the interviewee passive and not talk too little which may result in the interviewee feeling that he or she is not talking along the right lines the interviewer is ethically sensitive that is the interviewer is sensitive to the ethical dimension of interviewing ensuring the interviewee appreciates what the research is about its purposes and that his or her answers will be treated confidentially what follows is a short video of an interview that falls down on many of these criteria see how many you can spot first you’ll see the video without interruption and then you’ll see it again with some comments from me where I think it is falling down on some of the criteria oh come in come in sit down thanks for coming to talk to me today and how long have you been dragged Amanda 13 years right and and what what’s dragon-like for you um usually I enjoy it with sometimes it’s stressful right go go okay and and what was it like learning to drive me I’m going to take it boom learning to drive it was nerve-wracking was it was it stressful then taking the test yeah what’s stressful it looks really nervous right okay thanks for thanks for talking to me today London now let’s see that again oh come in come in sit down thanks for coming to talk to me today and how long have you been draggin Amanda well that was a very brief introduction interview didn’t explain the context of the interview who she was or what the research was about and there was no consideration of any ethical issues at all um how long have you been dragging Amanda thirteen years right and and what what’s driving life for you notice the lack of eye contact here interviewer seems to be simply reading the questions she’s not making any attempt to build any kind of rapport with the interviewee and and what what’s driving life for you um usually I enjoy but sometimes it’s just right well okay notice that the interviewer just simply accepts the short answers to her questions and makes no attempt to give any prompts or and you follow up questions for example she could ask the interviewee why driving is enjoyable or even better ask her to give an example that when it’s enjoyable and what was it like learning to driving I’m going to take you change of topic but a much better question what was it like however as in spoiled by the second question how long did it take then daddy try was nerve-racking was it was it stressful like taking me to notice the long pause here you interviewee is clearly thinking about the stress of learning to drive but the interviewer offers no probe at this point no further investigation in fact next the question changes the topic again to the test itself was it was it stressful that day guinea test yeah well stressful it was really nervous right question about stress invites a yes or no answer and that’s exactly what the interviewer gets he needs a follow-up question about for example why was it stressful but this is not forthcoming ok thanks for thanks for talking to me today and so the interview ends rather suddenly without the interviewer having found out very much at all about what Amanda the interviewee thinks about driving or learning to drive notice that the interviewee Amanda seems rather ill at ease it is not very forthcoming with information the interview also ends very suddenly there is no chance for the interviewee to add anything else which you might have thought of now let’s look at the second version of the interview where the interviewer makes a much better job of addressing some of the problems of outlined in the case of the first interview notice also how she makes a much better job of establishing a rapport with the interviewee and it consequently gets much more information about what she thinks about driving and learning to drive alabanza come come in hand sit down make yourself comfortable thanks for coming along today to talk to me I hope that this sort of experience I was as overs had going to listen to you this afternoon will be and pleasant and an interesting for both of us as you know the sort of the aim of the research really is to find out a little bit more about when what people’s experience of driving is like particularly learning to drive and events around learning to drive light and taking your test for example and as I explained before in the in the participant information sheet the reason that I’ve asked you is because I’m aware that Tim that you’re a driver and I wanted to find out a little bit more about what your own personal experience of of learning to drive has been about now I’m not expecting the interview to last very long probably only about a 10 minutes or so and and I just need to check out a few things with you before you but you get started I know that when we spoke earlier you agreed to take part in interview but I just want to check that still okay with you yes one great that’s brilliant now it’s important to let you know that if you want to stop at any time or you want to take where you can and if I was to ask you a question that we didn’t want to answer you know please feel free to just say I’m sorry I don’t want to talk about that that’s absolutely fine and and as we agreed earlier the whole purpose of using this interview will be for the research but also to use the interview for teaching purposes can I just check that that is us fine look like banks and do you have any questions for me before we get started no no I think I don’t feel okay right like then okay can you tell me how long you’ve been driving I’ve been driving for 13 years my gosh 13 years okay and can you tell me and something about the feelings that you associate with driving and I think mainly man driving I really enjoyed freedom but I can just go where I want when I want and although it can be stressful when you get stuck in traffic but when you go public transport you’re very much waiting around and you can not turn up and that’s really frustrating so you like the freedom that it gives me and we mentioned there about stress and it feeling stressful can you perhaps give me a bit of an example or tell me about timing well just like this you can get stuck behind sorted really slow or there’s a really bad traffic and there’s nothing you can do just stuck there and it can make you late but you you can’t do anything you just have to wait till moving traffic moves on that could be okay that’s great thanks one of the things that I’m particularly interested in finding out about are people’s memories of their experiences and in particular the sort of stories that people tell of events that might happen to them or their experiences of certain times in their lives and I particularly want to ask you about that in relation to your driving behavior and what I like to ask you to do is to think back to a specific point in time when you were learning to drive maybe a specific experience or maybe a particular lesson and and tell me a little bit about that and one coming boy when I was learning to drive I was learning to drive in my car but my mom had lent it to a friend because obviously I couldn’t drive on the road at a time and so the deal was that they taught me they took me out to say we meet and they got to borrow the car of course it caused a bit of a clash of interest because it wasn’t in their interest for me to pass my test because the Nativity of the car man so when I was learning to drive my kind of fit made it a bit uncomfortable because he you know I was kind of aware of that and I felt sometimes seems a bit undermining of my driving rather encouraging me because he you know he had his a like I say he but we didn’t want to have to leave the car back and I can also remember you know I was he was really nervous eating sweets because I’m I go too fast remember approaching a drunk average may too quickly and literally screeching like in a movie round robin baring having control of the car so I think he tolerated quite a few incidents as near-misses all right me you missus that’s interesting tell me about it what batten near me well just you know that driving a bit too fast and having to break heavily and just inexperience really learning to have control on the car so that that’s two quite separate feeling to remember one else doing the question before you were talking about and a feeling of freedom let’s and driving it gives you now how does that compare to that thing and that feeling of them going out there about me and missus I think when I was desperate to pass my test I lived in a small village right miles away from the nearest town so it’s really important for me to be able to drive to get to college so I think that was really a and to past and yet you know learn to control a car can be really you know difficult some weren’t understanding how gears and stuff where I could help you know learning what the speeds you should approach corners and whatever else and so I think you know I was looking forward to pass my test line how about freedom great that’s that’s great thanks and okay what I like to do now is get you to think back to the driving test itself yeah and take some time to think about how you felt at the time of you test and maybe about some of the events that happened in you taste and tell me the story of the test perhaps by starting at the beginning and working your way through to the end right what I remember of my test you know just as we got out the test center I stalled I think everybody does that sort of mean there’s so I think they kind of opened up that and then I can remember you know I was doing my best as I said I was really keen to pass and get on with driving and I can remember um thinking it was my first test and you know most people do it passed the first test so that mean you know I think in a way that makes you think well you know maybe a way pass will just do my best and I could approaching around about there’s a cyclist in the middle really being really careful not to knock over cycles really checking everything and I forgot to signal when I left the roundabout and I thought oh yeah he’s going to mark me down that but I actually think I look back on it I think he was really impressed I was really concerned about being careful around the cyclists and making sure I cut them up and stuff and so I think that was in mind although I forgot to do that I think is the best situation and I was glad I didn’t have to do parallel park things I found that very difficult I think I did a three-pointer so that was a relief as I really struggled on that and so you know proper install at beginning and stop I think it went okay and I was really as I passed well they all great passed first time yeah are slashing that’s wonderful okay so you mentioned and you know at that time when you were going around around town you’re trying to avoid the cyclists what kind of feelings were going on for you then I think I was more concerned about not hitting the cyclist rather than thinking about signaling which was you know what do you think of what testing that you have to do they look any mirrors and sitting-room and everything and but I think he was impressed but I was more concerned about cyclists rather than you know the maneuvers where I could that was in my favor yeah did it how’d it go any better in passing I was exhilarated I was so happy I went straight home and went round to the fence house turning about them of the test car please stuff like really well no but yeah it was great I went off for a drive maybe felt free at last like a girl from doing things so yeah I was 4 week I was like look what the lived yeah that’s great and thanks ever so much for sharing that with me and talking to me about your experience that’s really all the questions that I have for you do you have any questions that you want to ask me no okay that’s live life thanks bro you